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User Experience Design

Goal-Oriented Model for designing business processes

Goal-Oriented Model is a convenient method for designing business processes. This can be done by mapping each stage of a business process to the corresponding element of the Goal-Oriented Model. Hence, the primary business process could be mapped to the goal, the sub-business processes to the sub-goals, interactive and automated activities to the unit tasks, and the required business documents to the artifacts.

"Indirect Match" for designing user interactions

For content-heavy websites, "Indirect Match" would be an ideal solution to design the information architecture (IA) which systematises the overall structure of the website and make the experience more user-friendly.

Persona stories for designing CRM applications

Persona stories should be developed by observing the work styles of Customer Service Representatives (CSRs). Since the CSRs are the ones who interact directly with customers on a daily basis, they are able to understand how to fulfill customer expectations, hence the creation of more comprehensive persona stories.

Hierarchical Cluster Analysis for categorising services

Hierarchical Cluster Analysis technique can be applied for categorising customer service types in Customer Relationship Management (CRM) applications. The Quality Of Fit measure could also be used for identifying how well each service type fit into defined service categories.

Navigation in complex business processes

The website should indicate to the user their current position vis-à-vis the business process at any given moment, i.e. the name of the business process and its current stage. Secondly, the users should be allowed to navigate back and forth from their current position with ease. Thirdly, when the user leaves the current position, the website should alert the user when the navigation can result in a crucial change in the activity.

Writing for the web

Public facing websites deliver content to a global community of multicultural and multilingual audience. Textual content for such websites should therefore be in a straightforward style so that it allows anyone to interpret the content with minimal language proficiency.

Visual Perception and Design

User Attractiveness

Naturally, humans are attracted to, and trust, objects that they find aesthetically pleasing. User attractiveness should be enhanced using visual designs with aesthetic appeal. In addition to that, visual designs should conform to societal and cultural attitudes so as to improve user attractiveness.


Visual designs should stimulate users' visual thinking capabilities for understanding interactions and information with very little conscious effort. Visual thinking enables humans to make speedy decisions and assumptions within their respective context.

Human Eye and Visual Design

In order to properly convey the result of an interaction to a user, a website should display important information and UI elements related to it, in the same region of the user's visual field where his/her focus was previously positioned. Therefore, it is essential to have an understanding about the anatomy of the eye and the saccadic eye movements to determine the focus of the user's visual field.

Colours for visual identity

Colours are used to symbolise specific ideas and concepts depending on the societal and cultural context, and to prompt either a positive or negative psychological response in the user.

Gestalt Principles

If a design is made without giving due consideration to Gestalt Principles, the website will not convey the intended message to the user. In some complex scenarios, the designer will have to consider several principles of gestalt psychology simultaneously to avoid the user from getting the wrong message.

Designing for colour blind users

In accordance with Colour Accessibility Guidelines, designers should not use colours or symbols in isolation in their visual designs, but instead use them together so as to ensure that the message is conveyed to users who suffer from colour vision deficiencies.

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